Shoulder Diseases

Shoulder Disease Operations in Türkiye: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Rotator Cuff:

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles surrounding the shoulder joint, located on top of the upper arm bone (humerus). It plays a crucial role in stabilizing the shoulder joint and enabling shoulder movement.

Rotator Cuff Tear:

Rotator cuff tears can result from acute injuries, such as falling, or from chronic causes due to degeneration. It is commonly associated with tendinosis below the acromion (front of the scapula) after the age of 40. Symptoms include shoulder and arm pain, especially during overhead movements, increased pain while lying on the affected side, and reduced arm strength and mobility.

Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Tear:

A detailed medical history and special tests are used to diagnose a rotator cuff tear. X-rays, medical ultrasound, and MR imaging are utilized to confirm the diagnosis and understand the extent of the tear and any accompanying conditions.

Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tear:

Non-surgical methods may suffice for about 50% of patients, which include rest, avoiding painful activities, medication, physical exercises, and steroid injections. Surgical treatment is considered when non-surgical methods do not provide relief or restore functionality. Surgical treatment is recommended for cases where symptoms persist for 6-12 months, loss of shoulder strength and function, or a tear larger than 3 cm.

Dislocated Shoulder:

A dislocated shoulder occurs when the humerus (ball) separates from the scapula (socket) at the shoulder joint, which has a high range of motion and is prone to dislocation. Symptoms include pain while lifting the shoulder, friction during shoulder movements, visible shoulder deformation, weakness, or fear of dislocation.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Dislocated Shoulder:

Medical history, physical examination, and radiographic techniques are used to diagnose a dislocated shoulder. Initial treatment involves immobilizing the joint in a proper position and applying ice packs to reduce swelling and alleviate pain. Recurrent dislocations may require surgical treatment through arthroscopic methods to repair tears in joint structures.

Shoulder Arthroscopy:

Shoulder arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure used to diagnose and treat various shoulder conditions, including recurrent shoulder dislocations, tendon injuries, impingement syndrome, arthritis, muscle tears, cartilage injuries, and more. Compared to open surgery, arthroscopy offers advantages such as smaller incisions, reduced infection risk, shorter hospital stays, faster recovery, and better intra-articular examination.

Shoulder Replacement Surgery:

Total shoulder replacement is a surgical procedure used to address cartilage damage in the shoulder joint. The damaged joint cartilage is replaced with an artificial mobile surface. Treatment options such as painkillers and physical therapy are explored initially. Surgical intervention becomes necessary when pain relief is insufficient. The main goal of shoulder replacement is to restore functionality and reduce pain. A new procedure called "reverse prosthesis" is used in advanced cases with severe rotator cuff tears and joint cartilage breakdown, particularly in older patients, to improve shoulder functionality significantly.

> How can I tell if I have a Rotator Cuff Tear?
Symptoms can include shoulder pain, especially when lifting or reaching overhead, weakness, and a cracking sensation when moving the shoulder.
> Can a Rotator Cuff Tear heal on its own?
Minor tears might heal with rest and physical therapy. However, larger tears, especially in active individuals, might require surgical intervention.
> How does a Dislocated Shoulder occur?
A shoulder becomes dislocated when the upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket in the shoulder blade. It usually results from a strong force or impact, often seen in sports or falls.
> Is a Dislocated Shoulder a recurring issue?
Once a shoulder has been dislocated, it becomes more susceptible to future dislocations. Physical therapy can strengthen the area and reduce recurrence.
> Why might I need Shoulder Replacement Surgery?
Shoulder Replacement Surgery is recommended for severe shoulder pain and stiffness that doesn't improve with non-surgical treatment, commonly due to advanced arthritis or a severe shoulder fracture.
> How long is the recovery period after Shoulder Replacement Surgery?
While patients can often go home the same day or after an overnight stay, it typically takes several weeks for the shoulder to heal. Physical therapy is crucial during this time to regain strength and mobility.
> When should I see a doctor for shoulder pain?
If shoulder pain persists beyond a week, severely limits your range of motion, or is the result of a traumatic injury, it's crucial to seek medical attention to prevent further complications.

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